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Robert Falk "Trees"

the subject work, oil on canvas, size 55 - 46 cm

A sample of the signature of Robert Falk:

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

About the artist

Robert Rafailovich Falk  (1886-1958) - a russian painter. During the Khrushchev Thaw Falk became popular among young painters and many considered him to be the main bridge between the traditions of the Russian and French Moderne of the beginning of 20th century and Russian avant-garde and the Russian avant-garde of the 1960s. The distinctive feature of Falk's paintings of the time was sculpturing of the form using many
layers of different paints.

There are numerous paintings by Falk in the New Tretyakov Art Museum in Moscow.

 

One of Robert Falk works, painting «Trees»,  in 2008 was sold at Sothebys auction for US  $1.85 million.

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

List of similar style works by Robert Falk:

on the image below - the painting "A Backyard", canvas, oil, 1910

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the image below - the painting «Vitebsk»

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

Scope of the work:

Research of the subject work to determine whether the subject work is by Robert Falk.

Provenance

Current owner of the subject work is Mr. Oleg Tarakhnov. He received it as a gift from his friend Mr. Robert Usoyan from the famous Usoyan family (Tbilisi, Georgia). This painting was in collection of his grandfather.

Contents:

1. Signature analysis
2. Analysis of the infrared spectrum
3. Analysis using terahertz equipment
4. Analysis in Ultraviolet light
5. Microscopic examination
6. Stylistic analysis
7. Analysis by black-and-white photos and sepia mode
8. Analysis using a color inversion filter

 

 

Signature analysis

Our experts took samples of the original signature of the artist Robert Falk, followed by a comparative analysis of the signatures identified on the subject work.

Comparable signatures of Robert Falk

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

One of the most effective methods of examination is an infrared reflectography. With the help of a special infra-red radiation, which penetrates the upper layers of the examination object (painting, etc.), we investigated the layer directly below the visible surface (ie, the underlying layers are hidden).

This is particularly important for determining possible preliminary drawings under layers of paint or the signatures, inscriptions beneath the paintings. This method in combination with the terahertz equipment revealed the author's signature, presented on the images below.

Analysis was performed using a terahertz equipment (THz) to capture the internal structure of a work of art.

Teragertz images show features which can not be seen in the optical range or by using X-rays. This is achieved by allowing the terahertz waves penetrate into the inner layers of paint. Thus, the study revealed the hidden inscriptions (a signature and the year of the painting), are not detected by other means, such as optical, X-ray or infrared region of thespectrum. (For the study it was used a commercial THz system «Mini-Z» produced by Zomega Terahertsz Corporation, (USA).

on the image below — upper right corner of subject workrevealed Falk signature «R Falk» and «ФАЛЬК» indicated by the yellow rectangle
in green rectangle – sample of authentic Falk signature

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the image below — upper left corner of subject work revealed Falk signature «R Falk» and «ФАЛЬК» and digits «1935»  indicated by the yellow rectangle

in green rectangle – sample of authentic Falk signature

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the image below — lower left corner of subject work revealed Falk signature «R Falk» and «ФАЛЬК»  indicated by the yellow rectangle
in green rectangle – sample of authentic Falk signature

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

mon the image below — upper right corner of the back side of the subject workrevealed Falk signature «R Falk» and «ФАЛЬК»  indicated by the yellow rectangle
in green rectangle – sample of authentic Falk signature

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

Microscopic examination (digital microscopy) - Research under the microscope (magnification x 600-fold). Study the painting when using the microscope - non-invasive method, which gave information about the method of construction of the layers in the film, as well as about whether the work was subjected to subsequent revision or restoration. Micrograph allowed to get a very clear idea of applying the technique of tiny strokes of paint. As a result, it was determined that the restoration is not subjected to the studied painting.

on the images below - the front side areas of the painting under the microscope

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the images below - the front side areas of the painting under the microscope

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the images below - the back side areas of the painting under the microscope

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

A very important way to determine the authenticity of the painting, an analysis under the ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet rays have allowed our experts to detect ageing varnish film - more than fresh paint appears darker in the ultraviolet. It is known that in the light of an ultraviolet lamp darker spots show through the restored areas and handicraft copied signature. Photographing paintings under ultraviolet light creates the effect of various different materials glow in the paint surface. According to our experts, this method is a reliable indicator of the state of the picture. This means that later varnish layers will differ from the initial layer on the color tone. This is also true for the retouched areas in comparison with the original layers of paint. Various pigments also have a different luminescence (such as zinc oxide - the older, the more yellow; fresh paint - bright lights).
As a result of research, it was determined that the restoration of the painting have not been performed.

 

The stylistic analysis

1. Comparative stylistic analysis of the subject work on the basis of similar works of the artist that was taken from official sources. After analysis of technology, writing style, length and direction of strokes were found similarities of subject work with known works of the author.

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

 

2. On the edge of the painting there is an unpainted area. That corresponds to painting style of the author in many of his works.

 

on the image below — painting «Boating on a river»

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

 

Analysis in color inversion filter

Comparing analysis of subject work with samples of original works by Robert Falk in color inversion mode revealed similarity of colors, composition and brush strokes technique.

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

 

Comparative analysis of black-and-white color filter, and in sepia found similarities  instyle of writing, composition and brush strokes technique.

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

 

 

 Subject work, verso

 

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

Seal on canvas

 

With help of special color filters on back side of the subject work was revealed  seals of the paris company “Lefranc et Cie” (active: 1886-1922), which produced the canvases for paintings.

 

on the image below - the registration information about «Lefranc et Cie»

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the image below — upper left corner of the back side of subject work  (the location of seal indicated by the yellow rectangle)
in green rectangle — sample of original seal of Lefranc et Cien revealed Falk signature «ФАЛЬК»  indicated by the yellow rectangle)
in green rectangle – sample of authentic Falk signature

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the image below — upper left corner of the back side of subject work (the location of seal indicated by the yellow rectangle)
in green rectangle — sample of original seal of Lefranc et Cie revealed Falk signature «ФАЛЬК»  indicated by the yellow rectangle)
in green rectangle – sample of authentic Falk signature

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the back side of subject work (the location of seal indicated by the yellow rectangle)
in green rectangle — sample of original seal of Lefranc et Cie revealed Falk signature  «R Falk» and «ФАЛЬК» and digits «35» indicated by the yellow rectangle)
in green rectangle – sample of authentic Falk signature

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the back side of subject work
(the location of seal indicated by the yellow rectangle)
in green rectangle — sample of original seal of Lefranc et Cie
revealed Falk signature  «R Falk» indicated by the yellow rectangle)
in green rectangle – sample of authentic Falk signature

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)

 

Note:

For the protection of their works most of the artists put their signatures, seals and marks on inner layers of painting. Sometimes it was done by semi-transparent inks. In the process of the painting is done several times, which explains the large number of marks.

On the back side of the painting is the same pattern -  a large number of signatures and marks.

In the process of writing artists often make the correction pattern and color palette.

For this reason, initially stamped signature on colored layer and another content is applied to a new layer again approximately in the same place where signature was originally located. Therefore, in one area may be several signatures on different layers of the paint, which are detected by using special equipment.

On the subject work signatures of the author are located in a large amount (more than 20 signatures on each side). The signatures are found throughout the surface of the painting. All signatures of different sizes.

This research shows a signatures, which is best visible.

All signatures, marks and seals on the subject work are visible to the naked eye. By using
equipment we are able to increase their visibility and show in this report.

 

Conclusion:

As a result of research of the painting "Trees", Robert Falk's signatures were found and the year «1935» on the front and back side of the painting.

On the back side of the canvas revealed seal of paris company «Lefranc et Cie» that corresponds to years of life of Robert Falk and what confirms the authenticity of the canvas.

All of that confirms the authenticity of the painting, and originality of its performance.

A comparison of the features of the composition, of color and artistic methods clearly shows that the subject painting is the work of Robert Falk.

 

Рентгенофлуоресцентный анализ (РФА)