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Andy Warhol "Mick Jagger 143"

the subject work, tempera on canvas, size 60 - 80 cm

 

A sample of the authentic signature of Andy Warhol:

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

About the artist

Andy Warhol (1928-1987) was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, and advertising that flourished by the 1960s, and span a variety of media, including painting, silkscreening, photography, film, and sculpture. Some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans (1962) and Marilyn Diptych (1962).

Warhol, who would become famous as the "Pope of Pop", turned to this new style, where popular subjects could be part of the artist's palette. He loved celebrities, so he painted them as well. From these beginnings he developed his later style and subjects. Instead of working on a signature subject matter, as he started out to do, he worked more and more on a signature style, slowly eliminating the handmade from the artistic process.

One of Andy Warhol's works, painting «Triple Elvis [Ferus Type]», in 2014 was sold at Christies auction for US $81,925,000

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

Mick Jagger - is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, composer and actor who gained fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling Stones.

Mick Jagger 143 was painted while Warhol was at the height of his fame. Warhol spent a lot of time with Jagger and his current wife, Bianca. He was very close to their daughter,Jade. Andy even taught her how to paint. He produced this screenprint of Mick Jagger as part of a portfolio of ten in 1975.

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

List of similar works by Andy Warhol:

on the image below - "Mick Jagger 143", Screenprint on Arches Aquarelle (rough) Paper, 1975,Size: 43 1/2″ x 29″
Edition: Edition of 250, 50 AP, 3 PP, signed in pencil. Portfolio of 10. , Revolver Gallery, Los-Angeles, USA
http://revolverwarholgallery.com/portfolio/mick-jagger-143/

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below - "Mick Jagger 143", SCREENPRINT ON ARCHES AQUARELLE  (ROUGH) PAPER. Hand-signed by Andy Warhol (Pennsylvania, 1928 - New York, 1987) in pencil in the lower right and Mick Jagger(1943-) in black felt-tip pen in the lower left, numbered in pencil. Printed by Alexander Heinrici, New York. Published by Seabird Editions, London, England.
Size: 43x29 INCHES  Year: 1975   Edition: 250
 https://www.houzz.com/product/19605891-hand-signed-mick-jagger-pop-art-print-by-andy-warhol-contemporary-prints-and-posters

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below - "Mick Jagger 143", Screen print, Signed and numbered Edition of
250, 1975, Size 43×29 in., Guy Hepner Gallery, New York
https://guyhepner.com/product/mick-jagger-143-andy-warhol

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below - "Mick Jagger Test", Screen print, Chase Contemporary Gallery, New York
 https://ivnewyork.com/products/mick-jagger-test

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below - "Mick Jagger 143", Screen print, signature of Mick Jagger is similar to the signature on the subject work

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below - Title: Warhol and Jagger, Mick Jagger, 1975 Screenprint on Arches Aquarelle (Rough) Paper, 43 1/2 x 29 in (110.5 x 74.9 cm) ,  
Numbered from the edition of 250 (aside from the edition of 50 Artisit's Proofs, 3 Printer's Proofs); Printed by Alexander Heinrici, New York and published by Seabird Editions, London.  Hand-signed by Andy Warhol (Pennsylvania, 1928 - New York, 1987) in pencil in the lower right and Mick Jagger(1943-) in pen in the lower left.
 https://www.masterworksfineart.com/artists/andy-warhol/screen-print/warhol-and-jagger-mick-jagger-1975/id/w-4886

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

Scope of the work:

Research of the subject work to determine whether the subject work is by Andy Warhol.

Contents:

1. Signature analysis
2. Analysis of the infrared spectrum
3. Analysis using terahertz equipment
4. Analysis in Ultraviolet light
5. Microscopic examination
6. Stylistic analysis
7. Analysis by black-and-white photos and sepia mode
8. Analysis using a color inversion filter

 

Signature analysis

Comparative analysis of the signatures identified on the subject work with the authentic signature of Andy Warhol, Mick Jagger and other identified signatures.

 

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

in the comparative analysis, an almost complete coincidence of signatures was revealed, which indicates that in the subject work this signature belongs to Mick Jagger

 

 

Comparable authentic signatures of Mick Jagger:

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

 

 

Comparable authentic signatures of Andy Warhol:

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

One of the most effective methods of examination is an infrared reflectography. With the help of a special infra-red radiation, which penetrates the upper layers of the examination object, we investigated the layer directly below the visible surface.

This is particularly important for determining possible preliminary drawings under layers of paint or the signatures, inscriptions beneath the paintings. This method in combination with the terahertz equipment revealed the author's signature and other inscriptions, presented on the images below.

Analysis was performed using a terahertz equipment (THz) to capture the internal structure of a work of art.

Teragertz images show features which can not be seen in the optical range or by using X-rays. This is achieved by allowing the terahertz waves penetrate into the inner layers of paint. Thus, the study revealed the hidden inscriptions (a signature and the year of the painting), are not detected by other means, such as optical, X-ray or infrared region of the spectrum. (For the study it was used a commercial THz system «Mini-Z» produced by Zomega Terahertsz Corporation, (USA).

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «Andy Warhol»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Andy Warhol signature

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower left corner of the subject work
in the left red rectangle - revealed signature «Andy Warhol»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Andy Warhol signature
in the right red rectangle – revealed digits “1975” - year of creation of the subject work

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the back side subject work
in the upper red rectangle - revealed signature «Andy Warhol»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Andy Warhol signature
in the lower red rectangle – revealed digits “1975” - year of creation of the subject work

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «Mick Jagger»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Mick Jagger signature

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

The image below shows the method used to verify the authenticity of revealed
Mick Jagger's signature. This method was used to verify all identified
signatures in this report.

1 - a sample of the authentic signature of Mick Jagger
2 - the upper part of Mick Jagger's original signature cut in half
3 - the upper part of Mick Jagger's original signature cut in half is made same-transparent
4 - a semi-transparent part of the original signature is combined with the revealed signature

Thus, it became clear that the revealed signature coincides completely with the
original authentic sample, it is evident that all the details of the signature are
continued. But we need to take into account the fact that the author, when
writing his signature each time, writes not 100% equally, so it is natural that
there are small differences (in the slope of letters, in the distance between the
letters of the signature).

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

On the subject work was revealed signatures of other “the Rolling Stones” members : Charlie Watts, Ronnie Wood and Keith Richards

on the image below — lower right corner of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «Charlie Watts» and «Ronnie Wood»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Charlie Watts and Ronnie Wood  signatures

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «Keith Richards»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Keith Richards signature

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

On the subject work was revealed signature of current US president Donald Trump

on the image below –  photo of Donald Trump (on the left) and Andy Warhol (on the right)
as is known from historical photographs and articles - Donald Trump was a frequent visitor of the famous nightclub Studio 54 in New-York, as well as Andy Warhol in that period of time

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

and signature of art dealer Richard Polsky - friend of Andy Warhol

on the image below - Richard Polsky (on the left) and Andy Warhol (on the right)

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «Donald Trump» and «Richard Polsky»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Donald Trump and Richard Polsky signatures

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

The image below shows the method used to verify the authenticity of revealed Donald Trump's signature.
1 - a sample of the authentic signature of Donald Trump
2 - the upper part of Donald Trump's original signature cut in half
3 - the upper part of Donald Trump's original signature cut in half is made same-transparent
4 - a semi-transparent part of the original signature is combined with the revealed signature
Thus, it became clear that the revealed signature coincides completely with the original authentic sample, it is evident that all the details of the signature are continued. But we need to take into account the fact that the author, when writing his signature each time, writes not 100% equally, so it is natural that there are small differences (in the slope of letters, in the distance between the letters of the signature).

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

 

On the subject work was revealed signature of John Lennon and Michael Jackson.

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below - photo of Andy Warhol (on the left) and Michael Jackson (on the right) in Studio 54

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «John Lennon» and «Michael Jackson»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic John Lennon and Michael Jackson signatures

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

On the subject work was revealed signature of Paul McCartney

on the image below - photo of Mick Jagger (on the left) and Paul McCartney (on the right)in 1978

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «Paul McCartney»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Paul McCartney signature

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

On the subject work was revealed signature of Sylvester Stallone and Liza Minelli. 

on the image below - photo of Sylvester Stallone (on the left) and Andy Warhol (on the right) in 1979

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below - photo of Liza Minelli (in the center) and Andy Warhol (on the right) in Studio 54

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «Sylvester Stallone» and «Liza Minelli»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Sylvester Stallone and Liza Minelli signatures

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

With the use of a special light source located from the back side of the subject work, the photos were taken from the front side of the subject work, so that it was possible to find signatures that were not visible in ordinary daylight. 

in the image below - the photo taken, when the light source is located behind the subject work
in the red rectangle - the location of the revealed signature

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

in the image below - the lower right corner of the subject work is rotated 90 degrees clockwise
In the red rectangle - the revealed signature "Mick Jagger"
In the green rectangle - a sample of the original signature of Mick Jagger

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

in the image below - the previous image in the black and white filter
In the red rectangle - the revealed signature "Mick Jagger"
In the green rectangle - a sample of the original signature of Mick Jagger

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

Microscopic examination (digital microscopy) - Research under the microscope
(magnification x 600-fold). Study of the subject work when using the microscope - non-
invasive method, which gave information about the method of construction of the layers in
the film, as well as about whether the work was subjected to subsequent revision or
restoration. Micrograph allowed to get a very clear idea of applying the technique of tiny
strokes of paint. As a result, it was determined that the restoration is not performed to the
subject work

on the images below — areas under microscope from the front side of the subject work

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the images below — areas under microscope from the front side of the subject work

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the images below — areas under microscope from the back side of the subject work

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

A very important way to determine the authenticity of the painting, an analysis under the ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet rays have allowed our experts to detect ageing varnish film - more than fresh paint appears darker in the ultraviolet. It is known that in the light of an ultraviolet lamp darker spots show through the restored areas and handicraft copied signature. Photographing paintings under ultraviolet light creates the effect of various different materials glow in the paint surface. According to our experts, this method is a reliable indicator of the state of the picture. This means that later varnish layers will differ from the initial layer on the color tone. This is also true for the retouched areas in
comparison with the original layers of paint. Various pigments also have a different luminescence (such as zinc oxide - the older, the more yellow; fresh paint - bright lights).

As a result of research, it was determined that the restoration of the painting
have not been performed.

 

The stylistic analysis

Comparative stylistic analysis of the subject work on the basis of similar works of the artist.
The subject work have a craquelure throughout the surface.

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

The craquelure is clearly visible in several areas of the surface of the subject work. It was determined that the craquelure has a natural origin.

Comparison of the subject work with a prints.

Andy Warhol created several variants of prints of the work «Mick Jagger 143».

All have differences in the signature of the Mick Jagger and also the differences in the details of the plot of the painting.

Among a large number of prints, a print from the 1976 series was found. The signature on this print is identical to the signature on the subject work, only the color palette of the signature has been changed.

On the print, in comparison with the subject work, the color palette has also been changed, and there are differences in some details of the picture.

 

 

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

 

Another variant of print have a similar color palette to the subject work. Signature of Mick Jagger also have similar color palette.

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

It was concluded that the subject work was the first work, on the basis of which all the prints were made by Andy Warhol.

 

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

On the print a points and lines are visible with the naked eye.
On the subject work there is no any dots or lines.
After analysis of technology, writing style, length and direction of strokes were found that the subject work is not a silkscreen or any other kind of a print.
It was concluded that the subject work is original work by tempera on canvas.

 

Analysis in color inversion filter

Comparing analysis of subject work with samples of original works by Andy Warhol in color inversion mode revealed similarity of colors, composition and brush strokes technique.

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

Comparative analysis of black-and-white color filter, and in sepia found similarities  instyle of writing, composition and brush strokes technique.

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

 

 

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

 

 Subject work, verso

 

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

Seal on canvas

With help of special color filters on back side of the subject work was revealed seals of theparis company “Lefranc et Cie” (active: 1886-1922), which produced the canvases for paintings.

 

on the image below - the registration information about «Lefranc et Cie»

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower left corner of the back side of subject work
in the red rectangle - the location of revealed seal
in the green rectangle — sample of original seal of Lefranc et Cie

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the back side of subject work
in the red rectangle - the location of revealed seal
in the green rectangle — sample of original seal of Lefranc et Cie

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

 

On the back side of the subject work was revealed seal of the Paris company «Lefranc Bourgeois» (founded in 1720), which produced canvases for painting.
In 1965, Bourgeois Aine merged with Lefranc et Cie to become Lefranc Bourgeois.

on the image below — sample seals of the of the company «Lefranc Bourgeois»

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower left corner of the back side of the subject work
in the red rectangle - the location of revealed seal
in the green rectangle — sample of original seal «Lefranc Bourgeois»

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

On back side of the subject work was revealed seal in a form of Great Seal of the United States

on the image below - Great Seal of the United States

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the back side of the subject work
in the red rectangle - the location of revealed seal
in the green rectangle — sample of original Great Seal of the United States

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

On the subject work was revealed signature of a former US president Jimmy Carter (was a president of USA from January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981)

on the image below - photo of Jimmy Carter (on the left) and Andy Warhol (on the right) in 1977

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below - photo of Jimmy Carter (on the left) and Andy Warhol (on the right) in 1978

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

on the image below — lower right corner of the back side of the subject work
in the red rectangle - revealed signature «Jimmy Carter»
in the green rectangle – sample of authentic Jimmy Carter signature

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии

 

Note:

To protect their works, most artists put their signatures, seals and labels on the inner layers of the painting. Also, artists use the application of a signature for the purposes of selecting the necessary color gamma in the process of writing the work. By thus applying a signature to the still not dried layer in the process of work, the artist looks at the color transitions and thus achieves the color gamma that he needs.

Also, in order to protect the work, artists used translucent ink or a graphite pencil, making notes or their signature. In the process of writing a picture, this is done several times, which explains their large number. On the reverse side of the canvas is likewise placed a large number of signatures and labels.

In the process of writing the paintings, artists repeatedly make corrections to the drawing and the color palette. For this reason, the original signature is painted over with the next author's layer and applied on the new image anew in approximately the same place whereit was originally located. Therefore, in one section there may be several signatures on different authorial layers, which are detected with the use of special technical means.

In the subject work, the author's signatures are in large numbers (more than 20 signatures on each side). Signatures are found all over the surface of the picture. All signatures have different sizes.

This expertise shows the signatures and inscriptions that are best seen.

All signatures, marks and seals on the subject work are visible to the naked eye. Using theequipment, we can increase their visibility and show in this report.

 

 

Conclusion:

As a result of research of the painting "Mick Jagger 143", Andy Warhol's signatures were found on the front and back side of the subject work as well as the year of creation of the subject work «1975».

Also was revealed signatures of «the Rolling Stones» members : Mick Jagger, Charlie Watts, Ronnie Wood and Keith Richards. They all were a frequent visitors in famous club «Studio 54» (active 1977-1980) in New York.

On the subject work was revealed signature of current US president Donald Trump.

As well as a signature of art dealer Richard Polsky.

Signatures of other frequent visitors of a famous club «Studio 54» (active 1977-1980): John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Michael Jackson, Sylvester Stallone and Liza Minelli.

On the back side of the canvas revealed seals of the company «Lefranc et Cie» (1886-1922) and «Lefranc Bourgeois» (founded in 1720) that confirms the authenticity of the canvas. In 1965, Bourgeois Aine merged with Lefranc et Cie to become Lefranc Bourgeois. That corresponds to the date of execution of the subject work and what confirms the authenticity of the canvas.

On back side of the subject work was revealed seal in a form of Great Seal of the United States with a signature of former US president Jimmy Carter.

According to the information received, as a result of the research, a large number of original signatures belonging to famous people, actors, singers, politicians were revealed.

It is concluded that the subject work was in a public place, where autographs were left by people visiting this place. Since in those years the most popular place was club «Studio 54» and all these people were present there, which is confirmed by
historical photos. It is possible that initially the painting was transferred to president Carter, and he gived it as a gift to another person.

It was concluded that the subject work was the first work, on the basis of which all the prints were made by Andy Warhol.

All of that confirms the authenticity of the painting, and originality of its performance.

A comparison of the features of the composition, of color and artistic methods clearlyshows that the subject painting is the work of Andy Warhol.

 

 

Исследование пигментов методом ИК-спектроскопии